|Indicator Definition||Measurement of air samples for values of the primary greenhouse gases (carbon|
dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and associated species (carbon monoxide,
hydrogen and isotopes of carbon dioxide) in the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Details
|Indicator Type||Condition Pressure|
|The following 13 out of 15 criteria
|Date Input||Monthly measurements|
Cape Grim Details
Macquarie Island Details
South Pole, Antarctica Details
Geographic Coverage is
Longitude (62.0 to 159.0)
|Rationale For Indicator Selection||Over the last century the concentration of greenhouse gases has risen in the|
atmosphere. The average rise is about half that expected from human
activities, predominantly the burning of fossil fuel. Thus observations of the
concentration of these gases provides a measure of anthropogenic greenhouse
forcing in the atmosphere, and for example, monitors the effectiveness of
oceans and terrestrial biomes in removing the excess CO2.
Measurements of long-lived trace gas levels in Antarctic air generally provide
an accurate integration of global exchanges between the surface and the
atmosphere. The climate-influencing gases of main interest are gases released
as a result of human activity, as well as from (climate-driven) physical,
chemical and biological processes in both land and oceans. The Antarctic
monitoring, in concert with other global network results, exploits trace gas
ratios to identify and locate globally significant exchanges.
|Design and Strategy For Indicator Monitoring Program||Spatial Scale: High latitude Southern Hemisphere air samples are collected|
from AAD sites by BoM personnel at Mawson station, Casey station and Macquarie
Island, and by NOAA staff at South Pole. These complement CSIRO supervised
sites at Cape Grim, Tasmania and ~7 other globally distributed locations.
Frequency: Typical sites collect ~4 flasks of air per month for subsequent
analysis at CSIRO.
Measurement Technique: Various chemical analysis techniques (Francey et al.
|Research Issues||For global trace gas monitoring, improvements are sought in network|
intercalibration and in increased sampling, e.g. continuous CO2 monitoring,
vertical profiles, continental sites. More generally, improved coordination of
atmospheric composition modeling, surface flux measurements and atmospheric
transport representations are sought to serve new "multiple-constraint
Temporal range of the available data, as described by the metadata record, is from 01-Nov-84.
Timespan: May-1984 to December-2006.
Number of data points: 5041.
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Cape Grim: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide concentration
Cape Grim: Atmospheric methane concentration
Cape Grim: Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration
Cape Grim: Atmospheric Hydrogen concentration
Cape Grim: Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide concentration
Cape Grim: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide - C13 isotope concentration
Casey: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide concentration
Casey: Atmospheric methane concentration
Casey: Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration
Casey: Atmospheric Hydrogen concentration
Casey: Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide concentration
Macquarie Island: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide concentration
Macquarie Island: Atmospheric methane concentration
Macquarie Island: Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration
Macquarie Island: Atmospheric Hydrogen concentration
Macquarie Island: Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide concentration
Macquarie Island: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide - C13 isotope concentration
Mawson: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide concentration
Mawson: Atmospheric methane concentration
Mawson: Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration
Mawson: Atmospheric Hydrogen concentration
Mawson: Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide concentration
Mawson: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide - C13 isotope concentration
South Pole, Antarctica: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide concentration
South Pole, Antarctica: Atmospheric methane concentration
South Pole, Antarctica: Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration
South Pole, Antarctica: Atmospheric Hydrogen concentration
South Pole, Antarctica: Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide concentration
South Pole, Antarctica: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide - C13 isotope concentration
|Data Quality, Interpretation and
Analysis of Indicator Data
Because all these gases have long lifetimes in the atmosphere, the measurements at mid-to-high southern latitudes are representative of global values (after allowance for seasonal differences and transport between hemispheres). Trends in these gases would be recorded and compared with emission rates. The values should also be compared with pre-industrial levels.
CSIRO sites contribute to integrated global networks as part of the WMO Global Atmospheric Watch program. The small differences between sites are used, along with atmospheric transport models and prior (independent) information on regional processes, to monitor regional contributions to the global changes. The southern hemisphere sites in particular need to be reconciled with CO2 partial pressure measurements (from ships) and monitored for possible Southern Ocean circulation changes due to global warming.
|Data Usage Constraints|| '|
This data set conforms to the PICCCBY Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
Please follow instructions listed in the citation reference provided at http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/citation.cfm?entry_id=SOE_greenhouse_gas when using these data.
|Data Access Constraints|| '|
See the URL below for State of the Environment indicator 11 for access to these data.
A copy of the raw data are also available for download from the URL given below.
For definitions of the Scale categories, consult the Explanation of the Status Categories
The properties link can be used to view details of the parameters measured for this indicator.
Citation reference for this metadata record and dataset
Download page for Australian Antarctic Data Centre
Download point for the raw data