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This dataset also forms part of the set of State of the Environment (SOE) indicators. INDICATOR DEFINITION Daily measurements of solar Ultra-Violet radiation at Casey and Davis stations, reported in units of standard erythemal dose (SED). TYPE OF INDICATOR There are three types of indicators used in this report: 1.Describes the CONDITION of important elements of a system; 2.Show the extent of the major PRESSURES exerted on a system; 3.Determine RESPONSES to either condition or changes in the condition of a system. This indicator is one of: CONDITION and PRESSURE RATIONALE FOR INDICATOR SELECTION Stratospheric ozone depletion began in the mid-1970's and is likely to persist until mid this century or beyond. Ozone depletion allows more short wavelength, biologically damaging, UVB radiation (280-320 nm) to reach the Earth's surface. Thus, organisms living beneath depleted ozone are likely to be impacted by enhanced UVB irradiances. Enhanced UVB irradiances can increase the incidence of skin cancer, cataract eye disease and even immune system suppression in humans. It can also reduce the growth, productivity and survival of marine organisms and can cause changes in the structure and function of Antarctic marine communities. This indicator provides a direct measure of the extent and magnitude to which UV irradiances are enhanced and provides vital data against which biological responses to UV exposure can be normalised. Living organisms are sensitive to UV radiation because vital biological molecules such as DNA, lipids and proteins absorb strongly in these wavelengths. DNA, with a peak absorption at 260 nm, is particularly sensitive, and is liable to mutation. DNA damage has been extensively studied in microbial and mammalian systems where UV-induced damage produces two distinct effects, mutagenesis and toxicity. In humans the impact of DNA damage manifests mainly as skin cancer. DNA damage in plants has been the subject of relatively few studies (Britt, 1999; Taylor et al, 1996; Vornarx et al, 1998) with most research examining impacts of UV-B on growth or photosynthesis, predominantly using crop plants. Terrestrial plants are potentially very vulnerable to UV-B induced DNA damage. Firstly the levels of UV-B are higher on land than in water. In addition plants rely on light for photosynthesis and are therefore adapted to absorb high levels of solar radiation (and the associated, harmful UV-B). Defence mechanisms to protect against damaging high energy UV radiation are also found in plants. Compounds such as flavonoids, and carotenoids absorb UV radiation and act as sun-screens, reducing the levels of UV-B at the molecular level. Research has been limited in Antarctic plants but there are clear differences in protective pigment levels in 3 Antarctic mosses with Grimmia antarctici (an endemic species) showing low levels of these pigments compared to other cosmopolitan species (Robinson et al 2001). This suggests that the endemic species may be more vulnerable to UV-B damage. Studies have recently commenced to investigate DNA-damage in these plants. Work by Skotnicki and coworkers (Skotnicki et al 2000) which shows high levels of somatic mutation could also be a result of UV-B exposure. DESIGN AND STRATEGY FOR INDICATOR MONITORING PROGRAM Spatial Scale: The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency take broadband in situ observations at Antarctic mainland stations (Casey, Davis and Mawson) and at Macquarie Island. Frequency: Continuous measurements Measurement Technique: Broad band UV radiometry (use of biometer or biologically effective UVR detector). Total UVR measurements are also made using an Eppley TUV radiometer (responds across 290 to 400 nm wavelength range). Spectral measurements have also been made at Davis station. Readings are taken every ten minutes and the total SED's calculated for the day. RESEARCH ISSUES A need exists for a comprehensive monitoring network of broadband measurements, complemented by a small baseline network of precision spectral measurements across the nation. Such a network is being planned by the Bureau of Meteorology to link directly with the basic national meteorological observations. Validation of satellite data with surface based measurements (ARPANSA) over Australia for the period 1979-1992 has been carried out (Udelhofen et al 1999) and a follow up is planned for 1992-2000. Validation of satellite data and surface UVR measurements over the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic is planned between the Antarctic Division, ARPANSA and Dan Lubin at UCLA. LINKS TO OTHER INDICATORS SOE Indicator 9 - Daily records of total column ozone at Macquarie Island DATA DESCRIPTION 10 minute averages of weighted UVR (CIE 1987 spectral effectiveness). The data in the files is : Date, time, total solar radiation (counts), gain 1, Total UVR (counts), gain 2, UVB(counts), gain 3, biometer , temperature. Main Detector is Solar Light UVBiometers (SL501) Detector 1 - Eppley total solar radiation pyranometer. Detector 2 - Eppley total UVR (TUV) radiometer - covers wavelength range 290 to 400 nm. Detector 3 - International Light UVB radiometer - covers wavelength range 290 to 315 nm. Detector 4 - Solar Light UVBiometer (SL501) - approximates CIE erythemal spectral effectiveness. The 2nd last column is the biometer in MEDs/hr (1 MED is 200 J/m2 effective weighted with the CIE (1987) erythemal response) and the last column is temperature inside the detector. The 3 other detectors, with outputs in counts, are the total solar, Total UVR (TUV) and the UVB. Data are stored as zipped up .dat files, and in excel spreadsheets. Last data were added in 2020. The fields in this dataset are: Date Time Total Solar Radiation (counts) Gain 1 Total UVR (counts) Gain 2 UVB(counts) Gain 3 Biometer Temperature
This series of experiments were conducted in the Casey station laboratories, using field collected moss samples, during the 1999/2000 summer field season. The work is fully described in Wasley et al. 2006 and Chapter 5 of Wasley 2004 (pp. 118-152), full citation details are: - Wasley J., Robinson S.A., Lovelock C.E., Popp M. (2006) Some like it wet — biological characteristics underpinning tolerance of extreme water stress events in Antarctic bryophytes, Functional Plant Biology 33. 443-455. - Wasley J. (2004) The Effect of Climate Change on Antarctic Terrestrial Flora, Doctor of Philosophy, University of Wollongong 191pp. In summary, three byrophyte species were investigated: Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Ceratodon purpureus and Grimmia antarctici (later taxonomically revised as Schistidium antarctici). Samples of the three moss species were collected early, mid and late season (2/12/99, 24/1/00 and 27/2/00) from ASPA 135 on Bailey Peninsula. Additional samples of G. antarctici were also collected from the edge of the melt lake behind the Casey station accommodation building. Selected samples were used to determine a range of biological traits for the three species, including: - morphology (gametophyte density and width) - physiological response to desiccation and subsequent recovery - a range of plant biochemical characteristics (soluble carbohydrates, fatty acids, nitrogen and carbon contents and N and C stable isotope signatures) These traits were used to assess the biological characteristics underpinning relative tolerance of desiccation in the three Antarctic bryophytes species. This work improves our understanding of how these three species survive extreme water stress events in the Antarctic environment. The raw data associated with this work, in the form of laboratory notebook scans are available in Metadata record name: JWasley-LabBook-Casey-1999-2000 (http://data.aad.gov.au/metadata/records/JWasley-LabBook-Casey-1999-2000). Following is a description of these scanned data – which are arranged in three sections: 1. early-season, 2. mid-season and 3. late-season experiments. 1. The early-season experiment, using samples of moss collected from the field on 2 December 1999, is recorded on pages 5-22 of the laboratory notebook and uses filename "desiccation 991203". This batch of work, includes: - Sub-sample weights for analysis of soluble sugars prior to desiccation; T0 sugars (p5) - Key to randomised sample locations in 24 well tray (p6) - Method description and notes (p7) - Desiccation experiment data; Fv/Fm (photosynthetic efficiency) and sample mass (for calculation of relative water content). Starts T0 (5:30PM, 3/12/99) on p9 and continues to T12 (4PM, 6/12/99) on p12. - Estimation of gametophyte densities; desiccated on 7/12/99 and rehydrated on 13/12/99. Includes methods notes (p14) - Recovery from desiccation: planning notes and methods (p15-17); recovery data up to T11 at 24 hours (1440 min), with time since hydration recorded (min:sec) and corresponding Fv/Fm measured. Sample weight recorded at T0 when still desiccated and at 24 h since hydration. (p18-21) - Sub-sample weights for analysis of soluble sugars after desiccation (T1 sugars) and after recovery from desiccation (T2 sugars) (p22) 2. The mid-season experiment, using samples of moss collected from the field on 21 January 2000, is recorded on pages 47-79 of the laboratory notebook and uses filename "desiccation 000125". This batch of work, includes: - Sample collection and methods notes (p47) - Key to randomised sample locations in 24 well tray (p48) - Sub-sample weights for analysis of soluble sugars prior to desiccation; T0 sugars (p49) - Desiccation experiment data; Fv/Fm (photosynthetic efficiency) and sample mass (for calculation of relative water content). Starts T0 12:30AM, 26/01/00) on p50 and continues to T22 (12PM, 03/02/00; 203.5 hours) on p59. - Recovery from desiccation: up to T13 at ~24 hours, with time since hydration recorded (min:sec) and corresponding Fv/Fm measured. Sample weight recorded at T0 when still desiccated and at T9, T12 and T13 ~1,4 and 24 h since hydration (p62-65) - Note: p66-69 are blank - Sub-sample weights for analysis of organic content and method notes (p70) - Sub-sample weights for analysis of soluble sugars prior to desiccation; T0 sugars (p71), after desiccation (T1 sugars) and after recovery from desiccation (T2 sugars) (p73-75), sugar sub-sample label details and notes (p79). - Estimation of gametophyte densities; desiccated and rehydrated (p76-77) and methods notes (p78). 3. The late-season experiment, using samples of moss collected from the field on 27 February 2000, is recorded on pages 87-89 and 94-121 of the laboratory notebook and uses filename "desiccation 000228". This batch of work, includes: - Sample collection and methods notes (p87) - Key to randomised sample locations in 24 well tray (p88) - Estimation of gametophyte densities; desiccated and rehydrated and methods notes (p89) - Note: p90-93 are associated with a different experiment. - Desiccation experiment data; Fv/Fm (photosynthetic efficiency) and sample mass (for calculation of relative water content). Starts T0 12:00AM (midnight), 28/02/00) on p94 and continues to T30 (11:30AM, 08/03/00) on p117. Note: p96-99 are associated with a different part of this same experiment (see below). - Sub-sample weights for analysis of soluble sugars prior to desiccation; T0 sugars (p96-97), after desiccation (T1 sugars) and after recovery from desiccation (T2 sugars) (p98-99), sugar sub-sample label details and notes (p79). - Recovery from desiccation: up to T19 at 20 hours, with time since hydration recorded (min:sec) and corresponding Fv/Fm measured. Sample weight recorded at T0 when still desiccated and at T9, T12 and T13 ~1,4 and 24 h since hydration (p62-65) Data files, additional to laboratory notebook Filename – description - Desiccation_991203_updated2018.xlsx - early-season desiccation experiment, measurements primarily photosynthetic efficiency and water content - Desiccation_000125_updated2018.xlsx – mid-season desiccation experiment, measurements primarily photosynthetic efficiency and water content - Desiccation_000228_updated2018.xlsx – late-season desiccation experiment, measurements primarily photosynthetic efficiency and water content - Desiccation_Suagars.xlsx – soluble carbohydrate (sugar) contents of moss samples collected in association with the three desiccation experiments - Desiccation_Gametophyte Densities.xlsx – moss gametophyte densities measured for turf samples in association with the three desiccation experiments
Samples were collected at ASPA 135, at the melt lake, northeast side. This metadata record provides data collected during 2002/3 at Casey. Temperature sensors (i-buttons) were inserted into moss beds and a range of associated measurements were recorded (e.g. moisture and photosynthetic activity). The work was conducted by Jane Wasley and Johanna Turnbull over a two week period, from 15 to 28 January 2003. Field site location The field site was located in ASPA 135, on the northeast side of the melt lake. Approximate coordinates of the field site are: NW 110 32 32.5E, 66 16 56.0S NE 110 32 34.9E, 66 16 56.0S SW 110 32 37.6E, 66 16 58.5S SE 110 32 40.6E, 66 16 58.5S These coordinates for the site were estimated visually by Jane Wasley 15 April 2015. The area bound by theses coordinates is therefore approximate only. The shape of the site bounded by these coordinates is a parallelogram (see red polygon: ASPA 135_PML field site 2002-3.docx) and is positioned in the north-east corner of the ASPA135 meltlake, running along the eastern side. Related files - JTurnbull labbook Casey2002-3.pdf This file is a scanned copy of selected pages of Johanna Turnbull's laboratory notebook from Casey 2002/3 that provides mud map sketches of the field sites she sampled from during 2002/3 at Casey. This includes, on the page numbered 53, a mud map of "PML". (the ibutton field notes 2002-3.pdf file notes the work related to this data set was conducted "all in PML"). ASPA 135_PML field site 2002-3.docx This file provides an image of the approximate location of the field site "PML", marked as a red polygon. This polygon was estimated visually by Jane Wasley 15/4/15. Site name abbreviations used in field notebook (ibutton field notes 2002-3.pdf): PML = Plateau Melt Lake. Note that this site is also referred to, in other documentation for the season (not provided), as MLE = Melt Lake East, where PML and MLE are the same site (initially referred to as PLM, but later changed name to MLE). Methods: On 15 January 2003, 18 ibutton temperature sensors were inserted into moss beds. The sensors were pushed into the moss turf, so they were positioned just below the moss turf surface (measuring moss turf temperate close to turf surface, but away from surface effects of wind etc). Three species of moss were included (Ceratodon purpureus; Bryum pseudotriquetrum; Grimmia antarctici (since taxonomically revised as: Schistidium antarctici) and two micro-positions (ridge or valley) were used (moss grows in an undulating ridge/valley formation). A moisture reading (in volts) was recorded for each of the 18 sampling points (and corresponding reading obtained with probe submerged in water). Sponge cores were inserted into the sampling points to estimate moss turf moisture contents (to be removed for measurement at week 1, then a new set inserted for removal at week 2). At 1 week, on 23/1/03, the following measurements were made at each of the 18 sampling points: 1. Chlorophyll fluorescence using a mini-PAM (Waltz, Germany). See "SET" letters A to R, MEM # and YIELD in field notebook. Corresponding PAM data file not available to date (will be added to this metadata record later if can be found). If found, data in file will correspond to notebook via "Mark", No. and Yield, respectively. 2. Moss turf moisture content via sponge cores measured gravimetrically. See "changed vial moisture probe #" in field notebook (ibutton field notes 2002-3.pdf) and 'Tube #' in lab notebook (ibutton lab notes 2002-3.pdf) for wet weight and dry weight of sponge cores, to estimate turf water content. 3. Moss surface temperature (degrees C) using a hand held infrared thermometer (Scotchtrack T Heat tracer IR1600L; 3M, Austin TX, USA), see field notebook (ibutton field notes 2002-3.pdf) for data. 4. Moss turf moisture content (in volts) using a "PJ" moisture probe. No further information available about make/model. The moisture probe intermittently measured also in a salt solution ("Salty O"), using 2 x rounded teaspoons of table salt in approximately 200 mL of tap water. At week 2, on 28/1/03, measurements were repeated as per 23/1/03. The chlorophyll fluorescence data is provided in PAM_030129.xls. List of abbreviations (used in data files and/or field notebook): C = Ceratodon purpureus; B = Bryum pseudotriquetrum; G = Grimmia antarctici R = Ridge; V = Valley letters A to R indicate "SET" in field notebook (23 and 28/1/03) and "Mark" in file PAM_030129.xls I.R = infrared Yield = photosynthetic yield, measured via chlorophyll fluorescence Related files - Scanned copies of relevant pages from field (ibutton field notes 2002-3.pdf) and laboratory (ibutton lab notes 2002-3.pdf) notebooks. Data files (ibutton field expt_030129.xls and PAM_030129_working.xls).
Metadata ID: ASAC_1313_Transects_2002-03 Title: Windmill Islands vegetation transects, surveyed 2002/03 (baseline) This record contains data associated with a Windmill Islands vegetation baseline survey conducted in 2002/03, under ASAC_1313. A previous pilot survey is described under metadata ID: ASAC_1087_Transects_1999-00 and surveys conducted after the baseline described here are recorded in metadata IDs: ASAC_1313_Transects_2007-08, ASAC_3042_Transects_2010-11, AAS_3129_Transects_2011-12, AAS_4046_Transects_2012-13. A description of the survey design (relevant to all survey periods and above mentioned metadata IDs) follow. In 2002/03 a series of vegetation transects were established at two Windmill Island sites: (1) Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) 135, on Bailey Peninsula (66.283 S, 110.533 E), and (2) Robinson Ridge (66.368 S, 110.587 E). See SCAR Map Catalogue (maps 14450 and 14451) for location details. In summary: Each site included 10 transects. Transects spanned a vegetation community gradient, from pure bryophyte stands to the point at which the bryophyte turf was predominantly moribund and encrusted with lichens. Transect locations established in 2002/03 were in different locations within the two sites from that surveyed in 1999/2000, but remained fixed thereafter. Transect lengths ranged between approximately 1 and 4 m (for 1999/2000 pilot; length information not known for transects established 2002/03). Transects were surveyed using quadrats (portable metal frames) to mark the survey area. Three quadrat positions were established per transect: end positions referred to as "Bryophyte" and "Lichen" communities and the middle position referred to as "Transitional" community. The location of quadrat positions are marked with small metal tags glued to nearby rocks. Letters on tags are: A, M and B; where A = Lichen community, M = Transitional community and B = Bryophyte community. For each quadrat location the vegetation was sampled, collecting nine small (tweezer-pinch size) vegetation samples at 10 cm intervals across a 20 x 20 cm quadrat. The vegetation surface of each quadrat was photographed (25 x 25 cm quadrat) and environmental variables such as moisture availability were determined. For details, see QuadratSpecs.txt (this metadata record) and metadata ID: AAS_4046_Transects_2012-13, data file: Transects Data Summary_2000-2013.xlsx, worksheet "Quadrat". Vegetation samples were analysed for species composition using microscopy techniques, with live bryophytes identified to species level and lichens to broad morphological groups. Quadrat photographs were analysed for broad vegetation cover patterns (e.g. % cover live moss, dead moss, crustose lichen etc). A list of all vegetation categories scored follows (with abbreviations commonly used in associated data files provided in brackets): Live bryophytes; green (Live Bryo, Live moss) Moribund bryophytes; dead/brown/encrusted (Mori, Moribund) bryophyte species Bryum pseudotriquetrum (Bry, Bryum) bryophyte species Ceratodon purpureus (Cerat, Ceratodon) bryophyte species Schistidium antarctici (Schistidium and Grim, Grimmia*) bryophyte species Cephaloziella varians (Ceph) Fruticose Lichens (Fr) Foliose Lichens (Fo) Crustose Lichens (Cr) (* in 2002/03 this species was still referred to as Grimmia antarctici, abbreviation: Grim, thereafter it is referred to as Schistidium antarctici). Further details for transect sample collection are provided in Ryan-Colton 2007, King 2009 and Benny 2013 (and for pilot survey conducted in 1999/2000, see Wasley 2004 and Wasley et al 202). Descriptions of data associated with this record are provided below under the following headings: 1. LOCATION (GPS) DATA (and MAPS) 2. QUADRAT PHOTOS 3. NOTEBOOK SCANS 4. MICROSCOPY SCORE SHEETS 5. FINESCALE SPECIES ABUNDANCE (MICROSCOPY) 6. BROADSCALE PERCENT COVER (IMAGE ANALYSIS) 7. ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES (e.g. MOISTURE, TEMPERATURE) 8. PROCESSED/COMPILED/WORKED Descriptions of data provided: 1. LOCATION (GPS) DATA (and MAPS) See data provided in metadata ID: AAS_4046_Transects_2012-13 and maps 14450 and 14451 in the SCAR Map Catalogue: http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/mapcat/display_map.cfm?map_id=14450 and http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/mapcat/display_map.cfm?map_id=14451. 2. QUADRAT PHOTOS TO BE PROVIDED - photo files for all quadrats (and transect/site images) 3. NOTEBOOK SCANS TO BE PROVIDED - as scanned PDFs - Laboratory notebook - Jane Wasley has hardcopy (to scan) at AAD - Field notebook - Jane Wasley has hardcopy (to scan) at AAD 4. MICROSCOPY SCORE SHEETS FILE: ASAC_1313-Transects 2002-03-Microscopy.pdf The provided pdf file is a scanned copy of A4 pages that were used as score sheets for microscopy analysis of vegetation samples collected from transects in 2002/03. Samples were analysed (for species composition) via microscopy techniques after collection (analysis date/s not known, except 20/2/03 which is given on the last page of the provided file (page 20 of 20) is 20/2/03). These samples will have been analysed over a long period of time (weeks?) around this date. One page per transect. Transects located at two sites: "Meltpuddle" and "Robbos" (corresponding to M and R in quadrat labels, respectively). Transect and quadrat locations are as provided in metadata ID: Windmill Islands Vegetation Transects (noting that Meltpuddle = ASPA 135). Each transect includes three quadrats (labelled: A, M, B). A = lichen community, M = transitional community, B = bryophyte community Description of terms and abbreviations: - Transect: Transect ID; two sites: Meltpuddle and Robbos, numbers 1-10 are transect number - Quadrat: Quadrat ID; e.g. M2A (USNEA). First character = site (M=Meltpuddle; R= Robbos), second character = transect number (1-10), third character = community (A=Lichen, M=Transitional, B=Bryopyte) - Tray: label and position information of where the nine samples per quadrat were stored. Samples were stored in tissue culture trays with wells (24 wells per tray; to be confirmed via lab or field notebooks) e.g. 17 (1-3) would indicate tray number 17 (rows, 1-3). - Sample ID: e.g. 1A, 3C. Description of vegetation categories scored: Bryophytes were determined as dead (brown) or live (green). If live then identified to species. Lichens were determined as macro or crustose lichens. If macro then identified to taxa. Full list of vegetation categories follows, terms provided in brackets ( ) are those used in metadata ID: Windmill Islands Vegetation Transects, if different from that used here: BRYOPHYTES - - Dead Bryophytes: bryophytes; dead/brown/encrusted (Moribund) - Live Brophytes: bryophytes; live/green (Live Bryo) Bryum = bryophyte species Bryum pseudotriquetrum Ceratodon = bryophyte species Ceratodon purpureus Grimmia = bryophyte species Grimmia Antarctici (Schistidium antarctici) Ceph = bryophyte species Cephaloziella varians LICHENS - - Macro Lichens: Usnea = lichen taxa Usnea spp. (Fruticose Lichens) Umbilicaria = lichen taxa Umbilicaria sp. (Foliose Lichens) Pseudophebe = lichen taxa Pseudophebe sp. (Fruticose Lichens) - Crustose Lichen: lichen taxa, all species of crustose form (Crustose Lichens) Hand written scores (numbers 0-4) are observations via microscopy analysis of each tweezer-pinch sized vegetation sample. Each sample was scored for relative abundance of each vegetation category, using a modified Braun- Blanquet scale (dominant=4, co-dominant=3, low abundance=2, trace=1 and absent=0). Details as described in Wasley et al 2012, Wasley 2004 and Ryan-Colton 2007. Hand written notes include: - Apotheca: fungal fruiting bodies obseved - NSUS: No sample collected, Usnea spp. present at sampling point - NSRO: No sample collected, rock at sampling point - NSCR: No sample collected, crustose lichens at sampling point - NSPS: No sample collected, Pseudophebe spp. present at sampling point - NSPS: No sample collected, Umbilicaria spp. present at sampling point - +US: Usnea spp. present at sampling point, in addition to the sample collected. - +US (CD): Usnea spp. co-dominant at sampling point (in addition to the sample collected). Note: this file was previously named: Transects 1999-2000_microscopy score sheets.pdf - indicating the data relate to samples collected in 1999/2000. Jane Wasley has changed this to 2002/03 (July 2015) for the following reasons: - the date on the last page (page 20 of 20) is 20/2/03 - Each transect only has three quadrats (A,M,B). This was the experimental design followed in 2002/3 (onward), but in the 1999/2000 survey there up to 17 quadrats per transect. This file has therefore been renamed 2002/3. Further information should be checked via raw data and field/lab notebooks and can be updated if required. 5. FINESCALE SPECIES ABUNDANCE (MICROSCOPY) FILE: Transects-Microscopy-2002-03.xls Note, this file (prior to 2015) had been located at: SOE_Windmill_Island_veg.zip\SOE_Windmill_Island_veg\2008 Data updates\Transect Microscopy.xls, indicating it was 2007/08 data. In July 2015, Jane Wasley renamed the file as 2002/03. Other sources should be crossed check to confirm this change from 2008 to 2003 is correct (JW thinks 2008 was the year this data was submitted to AADC, but the data relates to samples collected in 2002/03). Data provided in worksheet "raw" are values between 0-4, as described in worksheet "metadata". Samples were scored for species/taxa relative abundance using a modified Braun- Blanquet scale (dominant=4, co-dominant=3, low abundance=2, trace=1 and absent=0). This scoring method was also used for the 1999/2000 survey (metadata ID: ASAC_1087_Transects_1999-00), as described in Wasley et al 2012 and Wasley 2004. Field names as per other descriptions related to this metadata record (and other related "transects" metadata records). Some details provided in worksheet "metadata". 6. BROADSCALE PERCENT COVER (IMAGE ANALYSIS) FILE: Transects-%Cover-2002-03.xls Note, as per previous file, this file (prior to 2015) had been located at: SOE_Windmill_Island_veg.zip\SOE_Windmill_Island_veg\2008 Data updates\Transect % cover.xls, indicating it was 2007/08 data. In July 2015, Jane Wasley has renamed the file as 2002/03. The file provided is raw present cover data, collected in the field via visual observations (by Jane Wasley). Quadrat area = 20 x 20 cm, gridded at 5 cm intervals. Each quadrat has 16 observations recorded (labelled using a row/column system, labelled A1 through to D4; each representing one 5 x 5 cm grid square). Note: this methods was also used for 1999/2000 transects, but was not included from 2007/08 onward - replaced instead by analysis of quadrat photos. Worksheet names: Raw Field Book - raw data as recorded in field notebook %A - working step one, calculation of percent cover from raw data %B - working step two, calculation of percent cover from raw data Metadata - descriptions of abbreviations and terms. 7. ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES (e.g. MOISTURE, TEMPERATURE) FILE: Transects-TurfWaterContent-2002-03.xls Note, as per previous files, this file (prior to 2015) had been located at: SOE_Windmill_Island_veg.zip\SOE_Windmill_Island_veg\2008 Data updates\Turf Water Content.xls, indicating it was 2007/08 data. In July 2015, Jane Wasley has renamed the file as 2002/03. The file provided is raw turf water content data, measured via deployment of sponge cores into moss turf. Sponge cores were inserted into the vegetation, left to equilibrate for a period of time then collected in pre-weighed air tight tubes and returned to the laboratory. Wet weight was recorded (g). Sponges dried to determine dry weight (g). These data used to calculate TWC. TWC = (Wet weight-Dry weight)/Dry weight (g. H2O g-1 dw). Two worksheets: 'raw'contains data and 'metadata'provides descriptions for data field names and abbreviations. 8. PROCESSED/COMPILED/WORKED FILE: SoE72_update_0108.doc This word doc provides a summary of survey status. Likely prepared by Ellen Ryan-Colton, but details not known. Date prepared unknown. Appears to provide data collected 2002/03 only. FILES: Ellen Ryan-Colton 2007_Thesis.pdf and Ellen Ryan-Colton 2007_Appendix.pdf The files provided are PDF files of the University of Wollongong Honours thesis written by Ellen Ryan-Colon in 2007. This thesis presents the 2002/03 baseline survey data, provides a toolkit detailing survey methods for future surveys and trials some image analysis techniques (as an alternative to collecting broadscale percent cover data visually in the field). Data were collected from ASPA 135 and Robinson Ridge, as shown in maps 14450 and 14451 in the SCAR Map Catalogue.
Metadata record for data from ASAC Project 244 See the link below for public details on this project. From the abstracts of the referenced papers: Photoinhibition of Grimmia antarctici (Grimmia is now known as Schistidium) during the summer at Casey, East Antarctica, was indicated by a reduction in photosynthetic capacity (light saturated photosynthetic rate), photosynthetic efficiency (photon yield of O2 evolution), photochemical quantum yield (ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence) and rate of fluorescence quenching when plants were exposed to moderate light at low temperature. We suggest that photoinhibition is a major factor limiting bryophyte productivity in Antarctic ecosystems. Variation in leaf pigmentation from green to ginger is observed for Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. in Antarctica. Electron microscopy of ginger and green leaves reveals less thylakoid stacking, a response to greater light exposure, in the ginger leaves. In extremely exposed sites C. purpureus has low chlorophyll a/b ratios which correlate with decreased 77K chlorophyll fluorescence, indicating damage to chlorophyll a. Pigment analysis of ginger moss shows that even when the chlorophyll a/b ratio has not decreased the pigment composition differs from green moss. The increase in anthocyanin and decrease in chlorophyll concentrations largely account for the visual change from green to ginger. The ratio of total carotenoid to chlorophyll varies from 0.35 in green moss to 0.55 in the ginger moss, with violaxanthin increased preferentially. Since these changes in pigmentation are consistent with photoprotection and they are linked to light depended variations in chloroplast structure, it appears that photoprotective pigments are a useful adaptation for the bright Antarctic environment.
Sampling records for Project 2542 Moss sampling in the Windmill Islands and the Vestfold Hills during 2005 for genetic analysis. Samples are stored frozen at the University of Wollongong and will be analysed using microsatellites. Collections of the mosses Ceratodon purpureus and Grimmia antarctici from the Windmill islands region and the Vestfold Hills. Sites include Clark Peninsula, Antarctic Specially Protected Areas 135 and 136 (formerly known as SSSI16 and SSSI 17), Robinson's Ridge, Peterson Island and around Casey station in the Windmill islands, and Mossel Lake, Lichen Valley and Grimmia Gorge in the Vestfold Hills. Windmill Islands collections 11-14 January 2005. Vestfold Hills collections 20-21 January 2005. Samples were collected with tweezers, with each sample containing 5-10 shoots. Samples will be used to survey the genetic variation in these mosses in the Antarctic. Notes about the dataset: Random, medium and fine refer to the scale of sampling used. Random samples were a single sample (tweezer pinch) of moss was taken from that GPS point. Medium scale samples used a 20 x 20 cm quadrat to collect samples at each of the corners and the centre of the quadrat, with a total of five samples for the GPS position. For fine scale samples, a small clump of shoots, with approximately 2 cm square of shoot tips each, were collected, so once again were only a single collection per position, except for the fine scale sampling at Robinson's Ridge, in which 25 samples were taken within a 5 x 5 cm quadrat. M8 marker etc. refer to various markers within or around the moss beds from previous or ongoing studies (by other researchers). These were recorded as additional guides for relocating sample sites if need be. 'Z pattern' refers to the order of sample collection within the quadrat. The fields in this dataset are: Sample Number Station Species Location Latitude Longitude Sampling Notes Quadrats Sites Two new spreadsheets were added in October, 2007. The following notes apply to these spreadsheets. 'metadata windmill is.xls' 'metadata all Ceratodon genotypes.csv' Quadrat and independent labels are used in some instances instead of 'fine, medium and random' that have been previously used. Quadrat and independent are equivalent to the medium and random sampling in previous spreadsheets. Fine scale samples weren't genotyped. Each of the five columns F-J (in both spreadsheets, in 'metadata windmill is.xls' it is the 'genotypes' sheet) are a different microsatellite locus for the moss Ceratodon purpureus (e.g. CEPU105), with the numbers in each row indicating the microsatellite allele or genotype as the length in DNA base pairs in that sample. Multilocus genotype ('metadata windmill is.xls' spreadsheet, 'genotypes and GPS' worksheet) is the combination of each of the 5 microsatellite alleles, if two samples share the same 5 alleles they have the same multilocus genotype. The GenAlEx program (this is the input for a population genetics program) gives a letter for genotypes present in more than one sample, and a number for genotypes only present in one sample, so 'E' is a very common multilocus genotype in this data set. In February 2011, two more documents were added. A csv spreadsheet detailing locations of mosses found in 2005, and a dating word document.
We investigated how surface reflectance properties and pigment concentrations of Antarctic moss varied over species, sites, icrotopography, and with water content. We found that species had significantly different surface reflectance properties, particularly in the region of the red edge (approximately 700 nm), but this did not correlate strongly with pigment concentrations. Surface reflectance of moss also varied in the visible region and in the characteristics of the red edge over different sites. Reflectance parameters, such as the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and Cold Hard Band (CBH) were useful discriminators of site, microtopographic position and water content. The PRI was correlated both with the concentrations of active xanthophyll-cycle pigments and the photosynthetic light use efficiency, Fv/Fm, measured using chlorophyll fluorescence. Water content of moss strongly influenced the amplitude and position of the red-edge as well as the PRI, and may be responsible for observed differences in reflectance properties for different species and sites. All moss showed sustained high levels of photoprotective xanthophyll pigments, especially at exposed sites, indicating moss is experiencing continual high levels of photochemical stress. The fields in this dataset are: Sample Ridge/Valley Site Species Pigments The site codes used in this dataset are: ROB = Robinson Ridge (Windmill Islands) RS = Red Shed (Casey Living Quarters - inside station limits) SC = Science Building (Casey - inside station limits) The species codes used in this dataset are: B = Bryum pseudotriquetrum C = Ceratodon purpureus G= Grimmia antarctici