Southern Ocean Diet and Energetics Database

Information related to diet and energy flow is fundamental to a diverse range of Antarctic and Southern Ocean biological and ecosystem studies. The SCAR Expert Groups on Antarctic Biodiversity Informatics (EG-ABI) and Birds and Marine Mammals (EG-BAMM) are collating a centralised database of such information to assist the scientific community in this work. It includes data related to diet and energy flow from conventional (e.g. gut content) and modern (e.g. molecular) studies, stable isotopes, fatty acids, and energetic content. It is a product of the SCAR community and open for all to participate in and use.

Overview

Current status

Data type Number of records Number of taxa Number of studies Last updated
Dietary sample data (gut content, etc) 33089 1157 334 2018-11-05
DNA diet data 233482 157 3 2018-10-09
Stable isotopes 4092 317 36 2019-06-25
Lipids 4181 15 3 2018-08-15
Energetics 3787 88 22 2018-09-19
Allometric equations 414 140 25

Data access

A download link can be found along with detailed data information in the metadata record.

Access is also possible via the R packages sohungry (for data) and solong (for allometric equations).

Citing

The database is released under a CC-BY license: please cite these data when using. If you have used data from a small number of individual sources (check the source_id and source_details values of the data you used), please cite the original data sources and additionally acknowledge this database. For example:

Smith J (2008) On the use of stable isotopes. Journal of Stable Isotope Stuff 123:100–110. Data obtained from the SCAR Southern Ocean Diet and Energetics Database, doi:10.26179/5d1aec22f41d5

If you have used data from many individual sources, the overall citation for this database is:

Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (2019) Southern Ocean Diet and Energetics Database. doi:10.26179/5d1aec22f41d5

However, you are encouraged to cite all primary sources (possibly in supplementary material, if there are many).

Note: the database receives a new DOI each time it is updated, so that a particular citation can be tied to an exact version of the database.

Software tools

As well as providing data access, the R packages mentioned above also provide functionality for working with these data. See the package home pages for more information: https://github.com/SCAR/sohungry and https://github.com/SCAR/solong.

See also

The project update presented at the MEASO 2018 conference that was held in Hobart, April 2018.

People

Antarctic or Southern Ocean researchers holding relevant data, or interested in using such data in their work, are encouraged to make contact.

Core project working group

  • Antonio Agüera (Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium)
  • Claudia Andrade (Instituto de la Patagonia, Universidad de Magallanes)
  • Maëlle Connan (Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa)
  • Hauke Flores (Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany)
  • Luis Hückstädt (University of California Santa Cruz, USA)
  • Mary-Anne Lea (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, Australia)
  • Julie McInnes (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, Australia)
  • Ben Raymond (Australian Antarctic Division, Australia)
  • Fokje Schaafsma (Institute for Marine Resources & Ecosystem Studies, Netherlands)
  • Gabriele Stowasser (British Antarctic Survey, United Kingdom)
  • Rowan Trebilco (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, Australia)
  • Anton van de Putte (Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium)
  • Andrea Walters (Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, Australia)
  • José Xavier (University of Coimbra, Portugal, and British Antarctic Survey, United Kingdom)

Data contributors

  • Claudia Andrade, Thomas Brey, and colleagues (subantarctic South American isotopes and diet)
  • Australian Antarctic Data Centre (the Southern Ocean dietary database was used to seed this new, larger database effort)
  • Laurence Clarke and colleagues (mesopelagic fish diet from gut DNA)
  • Alison Cleary and colleagues (krill diet from gut DNA)
  • Marie Clee (data entry)
  • Sebastien Descamps and colleagues (Antarctic petrel diet and isotopes)
  • Nicole Hellessey (krill fatty acids/lipids)
  • Chaolun Li and colleagues (zooplankton lipids and stable isotopes)
  • Sílvia Lourenço, Ryan Saunders, and colleagues (Krefftichthys diet)
  • Julie McInnes (albatross diet and stable isotopes)
  • Loïc Michel, Gilles Lepoint, and colleagues (benthic stable isotopes)
  • Ryan Reisinger (Marion Island stable isotopes)
  • Fokje Schaafsma and colleagues (energetics)
  • Arnaud Tarroux, Kit Kovacs, and colleagues (seal and penguin stable isotopes)
  • Megan Tierney (Macquarie Island fish energetics)
  • Anton van de Putte, Filip Volckaert (energetics)
  • Christine Weldrick, Rowan Trebilco, Kerrie Swadling (pteropod stable isotopes)

References

Source ID Details DOI
1 Reisinger RR, Grocke DR, Lubcker N, McClymont EL, Hoelzel AR, de Bruyn PJN (2016) Variation in the diet of killer whales Orcinus orca at Marion Island, Southern Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 549:263-274 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps11676
2 Cherel Y, Bocher P, De Broyer C, Hobson KA (2002) Food and feeding ecology of the sympatric thin-billed Pachyptila belcheri and Antarctic P. desolata prions at Iles Kerguelen, Southern Indian Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 228:263-281 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps228263
3 Gillies CL, Stark J (2008) Stable isotope analysis of invertebrate epifauna collected around Casey station, East Antarctica, for the TRENZ program. http://data.aad.gov.au/aadc/metadata/metadata_redirect.cfm?md=AMD/AU/ASAC_2948_TRENZ_Stable_Isotopes https://doi.org/10.4225/15/57C63FC430721
4 Ducatez S, Dalloyau S, Richard P, Guinet C, Cherel Y (2008) Stable isotopes document winter trophic ecology and maternal investment of adult female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) breeding at the Kerguelen Islands. Marine Biology 155: 413-420 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-008-1039-3
5 Cherel Y (2008) Isotopic niches of emperor and Adelie penguins in Adelie Land, Antarctica. Marine Biology 154: 813-821 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-008-0974-3
6 Burns JM, Trumble SJ, Castellini MA, Testa JW (1998) The diet of Weddell seals in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica as determined from scat collections and stable isotope analysis. Polar Biology 19: 272-282 https://doi.org/10.1007/s003000050245
7 Strickland ME, Polito M, Emslie SD (2008) Spatial and seasonal variation in Adelie penguin diet as inferred from stable isotope analysis of eggshell. Journal of the North Carolina Academy of Science 124(3): 65-71
8 Cherel Y, Fontaine C, Richard P, Labat J-P (2010) Isotopic niches and trophic levels of myctophid fishes and their predators in the Southern Ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 55(1): 324-332 https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2010.55.1.0324
9 Hodum PJ, Hobson KA (2000) Trophic relationships among Antarctic fulmarine petrels: insights into dietary overlap and chick provisioning strategies inferred from stable-isotope (d15N and d13C) analyses. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198:273-281 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps198273
10 Zhao L, Castellini MA, Mau TL, Trumble SJ (2004) Trophic interactions of Antarctic seals as determined by stable isotope signatures. Polar Biology 27:368-373 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-004-0598-0
11 Cherel Y, Hobson KA, Weimerskirch H (2005) Using stable isotopes to study resource acquisition and allocation in procellariiform seabirds. Oecologia 145:533-540 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-005-0156-7
12 Cherel Y, Ducatez S, Fontaine C, Richard P, Guinet C (2008) Stable isotopes reveal the trophic position and mesopelagic fish diet of female southern elephant seals breeding on the Kerguelen Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Series 370:239-247 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07673
13 Weiss F, Furness RW, McGill RAR, Strange IJ, Masello JF, Quillfeldt P (2009) Trophic segregation of Falkland Islands seabirds: insights from stable isotope analysis. Polar Biology 32:1753-1763 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-009-0674-6
14 Jaeger A Cherel Y (2011) Isotopic Investigation of Contemporary and Historic Changes in Penguin Trophic Niches and Carrying Capacity of the Southern Indian Ocean. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16484. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016484
15 Schmidt K, Atkinson A, Stubing D, McClelland JW, Montoya JP, Voss M (2003) Trophic relationships among Southern Ocean copepods and krill: some uses and limitations of a stable isotope approach. Limnology and Oceanography 48(1):277-289 https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2003.48.1.0277
16 Nyssen F, Brey T, Lepoint G, Bouquegneau J-M, De Broyer C, Dauby P (2002) A stable isotope approach to the eastern Weddell Sea trophic web: focus on benthic amphipods. Polar Biology 25:280-287 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-001-0340-0
17 Steele WK (2005) Stable isotope ratios of Antarctic petrel (Thalassoica antarctica) and snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea) bone collagen. Polar Biology 28:672-679 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-005-0736-3
18 Cherel Y, Hobson KA (2005) Stable isotopes, beaks and predators: a new tool to study the trophic ecology of cephalopods, including giant and colossal squids. Proc. R. Soc. B 2005 272: 1601-1607 https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2005.3115
19 Anderson ORJ, Phillips RA, Shore RF, McGill RAR, McDonald RA, Bearhop S (2009) Diet, individual specialisation and breeding of brown skuas (Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi): an investigation using stable isotopes. Polar Biology 32:27-33 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-008-0498-9
20 Quillfeldt, P., McGill, R.A.R., Furness, R.W. (2005) Diet and foraging areas of Southern Ocean seabirds and their prey inferred from stable isotopes: review and case study of Wilson’s storm-petrel. Marine Ecology Progress Series 295: 295-304 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps295295
21 Bearhop S, Phillips RA, McGill R, Cherel Y, Dawson DA, Croxall JP (2006) Stable isotopes indicate sex-specific and long-term individual foraging specialisation in diving seabirds. Marine Ecology Progress Series 311: 157-164 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps311157
22 Polito MJ, Trivelpiece WZ, Karnovsky NJ, Ng E, Patterson WP, Emslie SD (2011) Integrating stomach content and stable isotope analyses to quantify the diets of pygoscelid penguins. PLoS ONE 6(10): e26642. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026642
23 Giraldo C, Cherel Y, Vallet C, Mayzaud P, Tavernier E, Moteki M, Hosie G, Koubbi P (2011) Ontogenic changes in the feeding ecology of the early life stages of the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) documented by stable isotopes and diet analysis in the Dumont dUrville Sea (East Antarctica). Polar Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polar.2011.04.004
24 Cherel Y, Koubbi P, Giraldo C, Penot F, Tavernier E, Moteki M, Ozouf-Costaz C, Causse R, Chartier A, Hosie G (2011) Isotopic niches of fishes in coastal, neritic and oceanic waters off Adelie land, Antarctica. Polar Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polar.2010.12.004
25 Nyssen F Brey T (2005) Trophic position of Antarctic amphipods - enhanced analysis by a 2-dimensional biomarker assay. Marine Ecology Progress Series 300:135-145 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps300135
26 Bocher P, Cherel Y, Hobson KA (2000) Complete trophic segregation between South Georgian and common diving petrels during breeding at Iles Kerguelen. Marine Ecology Progress Series 208: 249-264. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps208249
27 Cherel Y, Bocher P, Trouve C, Weimerskirch H (2002) Diet and feeding ecology of blue petrels Halobaena caerulea at Iles Kerguelen, Southern Indian Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 228: 283-299 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps228283
28 Corbisier TN, Petti MAV, Skowronski SP, Brito TAS (2004) Trophic relationships in the nearshore zone of Martel Inlet (King George Island, Antarctica): d13C stable-isotope analysis. Polar Biology 27:75-82 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-003-0567-z
29 Tarroux A Lowther AD, Lydersen C Kovacs KM (2016) Temporal shift in the isotopic niche of female Antarctic fur seals from Bouvetoya. Polar Research 35:31335. https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v35.31335
30 Watanuki, Y., Mori, Y., and Naito, Y. (1994) Euphausia superba dominates in the diet of Adelie penguins feeding under fast sea ice in the shelf areas of Enderby Land in summer. Polar Biology 14:429-432 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00240264
31 Zipan, W. and Norman, F.I. (1993) Foods of the south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki) in the eastern Larsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. Polar Biology 13:255-262 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00238761
32 Zimmer, I., Piatkowski, U., and Brey, T. (2007) The trophic link between squid and the emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri at Pointe Geologie, Antarctica. Marine Biology 152:1187-1195 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-007-0766-1
33 Gales, N.J. and Burton, H.R. (1988) Use of emetics and anaesthesia for dietary assessment of Weddell seals. Australian Wildlife Research 15:423-433 https://doi.org/10.1071/wr9880423
34 Williams R (1999, updated 2007) Fish biological and stomach contents data - Casey 1988. Australian Antarctic Data Centre https://doi.org/10.4225/15/581ab14668529
35 Makhado, A.B., Bester, M.N., Kirkman, S.P., Pistorius, P.A., Ferguson, J.W.H., and Klages, N.T.W. (2008) Prey of the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella at Marion Island. Polar Biology 31:575-581 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-007-0391-y
36 Lowry, L.F., Testa, J.W., and Calvert, W. (1988) Notes on the winter feeding of crabeater and leopard seals near the Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology 8:475-478 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00264724
37 Robertson, G., Williams, R., Green, K., and Robertson, L. (1994) Diet composition of emperor penguin chicks Aptenodytes forsteri at two Mawson Coast colonies, Antarctica. Ibis 136:1931
38 Pakhomov, E.A., Perissinotto, R., and McQuaid, C.D. (1996) Prey composition and daily rations of myctophid fishes in the Southern Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 134:114 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps134001
39 Osman, L.P., Hucke-Gaete, R., Moreno, C.A., and Torres, D. (2004) Feeding ecology of Antarctic fur seals at Cape Shirreff, South Shetlands, Antarctica. Polar Biology 27:9298 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-003-0555-3
40 Bushuev, S.G. (1986) Feeding of Minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, in the Antarctic. Report of the International Whaling Commission 36:241-245
41 Brothers, N.P. (1985) Breeding biology, diet and morphometrics of the King Shag, Phalacrocorax albiventer purpurascens, at Macquarie Island. Australian Wildlife Research 12:8194 https://doi.org/10.1071/wr9850081
42 MOUGIN, J.-L. 1970. Les albatros fuligineux Phoebetria palpebrata et P. fusca de lile de la Possession (Archipel Crozet). Oiseau 40: 3761 (as cited in COOPER, J., HENLEY, S.R. & KLAGES, N.T.W. 1992. The diet of the Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans at subantarctic Marion Island. Polar Biol. 12: 477484)
43 Obst unpublished data (as cited in OBST, B.S. 1985. Densities of Antarctic seabirds at sea and the presence of the krill Euphausia superba. The Auk. 102:540-549)
44 Oliver, W. R. B. 1955. New Zealand birds. 2nd ed. Wellington, Reed (as cited in Imber MJ (1981) Diets of stormpetrels Pelagodroma and Garrodia and of prions Pachyptila (Procellariiformes). In: Cooper J (ed) Proceedings of the symposium on birds of the sea and shore. African Seabird Group, Cape Town, p 6388)
45 Paulian P (1953) PinnipA?des, cACtacACs, oiseaux des Iles Kerguelen et Amsterdam. Mission Kerguelen 1951. MACm Inst Rech Sci Madag Ser A Biol Anim 8:111234 (as cited in Imber MJ (1981) Diets of stormpetrels Pelagodroma and Garrodia and of prions Pachyptila (Procellariiformes). In: Cooper J (ed) Proceedings of the symposium on birds of the sea and shore. African Seabird Group, Cape Town, p 6388)
46 Payne, M. R. and Prince, P. A. (1979). Identification and breeding biology of the diving petrels Pelecanoides georgicus and P. urinatrix exsul at South Georgia. N.Z. J. Zool. 6,299 -318 https://doi.org/10.1080/03014223.1979.10428368
47 Prince PA (1980) The food and feeding ecology of blue petrel (Halobaena caerulea) and dove prion (Pachyptila desolata). J Zool (Lond) 190:5976 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1980.tb01423.x
48 Reid K, Trathan PN, Croxall JP, Hill HJ (1996) Krill caught by predators and nets: differences between species and techniques. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 140:1320 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps140013
49 RICHDALE, L.E. 1944. The Titi Wainui or Fairy Prion Pachyptila turtur (Kuhl). Part I. Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 74: 3248 (as cited in Imber MJ (1981) Diets of stormpetrels Pelagodroma and Garrodia and of prions Pachyptila (Procellariiformes). In: Cooper J (ed) Proceedings of the symposium on birds of the sea and shore. African Seabird Group, Cape Town, p 6388)
50 RIDOUX, V. 1994. The diets and dietary segregation of seabirds at the subantarctic Crozet Islands. Mar. Orn. 22: 1192
51 Roby, D. D. (1991). Diet and postnatal energetics in convergent taxa of plankton-feeding seabirds. Auk 108, 131-146
52 Rodhouse PG. Prince PA (1993) Cephalopod prey of the black-browed albatross Diomedea melanophrys at South Georgia. Polar Biol 13:373-376 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01681978
53 RODHOUSE, P.G., CLARKE, M.R. & MURRAY, A.W.A. 1987. Cephalopod prey of the Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans. Mar. Biol. 96: 110 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00394833
54 Steele, W. K. and Klages, N. T. (1986) Diet of the blue petrel at sub-Antarctic Marion Island. S. Afr. J. Zool., 21, 253256 https://doi.org/10.1080/02541858.1986.11447991
55 Strange IJ (1980) The thin-billed prion, Pachyptila belcheri, at New Island, Falkland Islands. Le Gerfaut 70:411445 (as cited in Prince, P. A. and Morgan, R. A. (1987). Diet and feeding ecology of procellariiformes. In Seabirds: Feeding Ecology and Role in Marine Ecosystems (ed. J. P. Croxall), pp. 135-171. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
56 THOMPSON, K.R. 1992. Quantitative analysis of the use of discards from squid trawlers by Black-browed Albatross Diomedea melanophris in the vicinity of the Falkland Islands. Ibis 134: 1121 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.1992.tb07223.x
57 Wasilewski, A. (1986) Ecological aspects of the breeding cycle in the Wilson’s storm petrel, Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl), at King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Pol Polar Research 7:173-216 (as cited in RIDOUX, V. 1994. The diets and dietary segregation of seabirds at the subantarctic Crozet Islands. Mar. Orn. 22: 1192)
58 WEIMERSKIRCH, H., JOUVENTIN, P. & STAHL, J.-C. 1986. Comparative ecology of the six albatrosses breeding on the Crozet Islands. Ibis 128: 195213 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.1986.tb02669.x
59 Weimerskirch H, Bartle JA, Jouventin P, Stahl JC (1988). Foraging Ranges and Partitioning of Feeding Zones in Three Species of Southern Albatrosses. The Condor, 90(1):214-219 https://doi.org/10.2307/1368450
60 WILLIAMS, A.J. & IMBER, M.J. 1982. Ornithological observations at Gough Island in 1979, 1980 and 1981. S. Afr. J. Antarct. Res. 12: 40-45
61 Green, K., Kerry, K.R., Disney, T., and Clarke, M.R. (1986) Dietary studies of light-mantled sooty albatrosses Phoebetria palpebrata from Macquarie and Heard Islands. Marine Ornithology 26:19-26
62 Hindell, M. (1988) The diet of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua at macquarie Island: Winter and early breeding season. Emu 89: 71-78 https://doi.org/10.1071/mu9890071
63 Kirkwood, R. and Robertson, G. (1997) Season change in the foraging ecology of emperor penguins on the Mawson Coast, Antarctica. Marine Ecology Progress Series 156:205-223 https://doi.org/10.3354/meps156205
64 Van de Putte, A.P., Jackson, G.D., Pakhomov, E., Flores, H., and Volckaert, F.A.M. (2009) Distribution of squid and fish in the pelagic zone of the Cosmonaut Sea and Prydz Bay region during the BROKE-west campaign. Deep-Sea Research Part II 57: 956-967 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.02.015
65 Gaskett, A.C., Bulman, C., He, X., and Goldsworthy, S.D. (2001) Diet composition and guild structure of mesopelagic and bathypelagic fishes near Macquarie Island, Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35:469-476 https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.2001.9517016
66 Alonzo, F., P. Mayzaud., Razouls, S., Bocher, P., Cherel, Y. (2003) Seasonal changes in biomass, growth rates and production of subantarctic calanoid copepods in the Bay of Morbihan, Kerguelen Islands. Marine Biology 142(3): 525-536 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-002-0976-5
67 Ichinomiya, M., Honda, M., Shimoda, H., Saito, K., Odate, T., Fukuchi, M., and Taniguchi, A. (2007) Structure of the summer under fast ice microbial community near Syowa Station, eastern Antarctica. Polar Biology 30:12851293 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-007-0289-8
68 Coleman, Ch. O. (1989) On the nutrition of two Antarctic Acanthonotozomatidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Polar Biology 9:287294 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00287425
69 Reisinger, R.R., de Bruyn, P.J.N., Pistorius, P.A., and Bester, M.N. (2010) Antarctic fur seal predation on cephalopods at Marion Island. Polar Biology 33:571574 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-009-0731-1
70 BECK, J.R. 1969. Food, moult and age of first breeding in the Cape Pigeon, Daption capensis Linnaeus. Br. Antarct. Surv. Bull. 21: 3344 (as cited in Croxall JP, Prince PA (1980) Food, feeding ecology and ecological segregation of seabirds at South Georgia. Biol J Linn Soc 14:103-131; and ARNOULD, J.P.Y. & WHITEHEAD, M.D. 1991. The diet of Antarctic Petrels, Cape Petrels and Southern Fulmars rearing chicks in Prydz Bay. Antarct. Sci. 3: 1927)
71 BIERMAN, W.H & VOOUS, K.H. 1950. Birds observed and collected during the whaling expeditions of the Willem Barendsz in the Antarctic, 194647 and 194748. Ardea 37, extra number: 1132 (as cited in ARNOULD, J.P.Y. & WHITEHEAD, M.D. 1991. The diet of Antarctic Petrels, Cape Petrels and Southern Fulmars rearing chicks in Prydz Bay. Antarct. Sci. 3: 1927)
72 BIERMAN, W.H & VOOUS, K.H. 1950. Birds observed and collected during the whaling expeditions of the Willem Barendsz in the Antarctic, 194647 and 194748. Ardea 37, extra number: 1132 (as cited in Imber MJ (1981) Diets of storm petrels Pelagodroma and Garrodia and of prions Pachyptila (Procellariiformes). In: Cooper J (ed) Proceedings of the symposium on birds of the sea and shore. African Seabird Group, Cape Town, p 6388)
73 BROOKE, M. de L. & KLAGES, N. 1986. Squid beaks regurgitated by Grey-headed and Yellow-nosed Albatrosses, Diomedea chrysostoma and D. chlororhynchos at the Prince Edward Islands. Ostrich 57: 203206 https://doi.org/10.1080/00306525.1986.9633655
74 Clarke MR, Prince PA (1981) Cephalopod remains in the regurgitations of black-browed and grey-headed albatrosses at South Georgia. Br Antarct Surv Bull 54:1-7; Prince, P. A. and Morgan, R. A. (1987). Diet and feeding ecology of procellariiformes. In Seabirds: Feeding Ecology and Role in Marine Ecosystems (ed. J. P. Croxall), pp. 135-171. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Clarke MR (1986) A handbook for the identification of cephalopod beaks. Clarendon Press, Oxford
75 CLARKE, M.R., CROXALL, J.P. & PRINCE, P.A. 1981. Cephalopod remains in regurgitations of the Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans L. at South Georgia. Br. Antarct. Surv. Bull. 54: 921
76 CROXALL J.P. and NORTH A.W. 1988. Fish prey of Wilsons storm petrel Oceanites oceanicus at South Georgia (Antarctica). British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 78: 3742
77 Croxall, J.P. and Prince, P.A. 1981. A preliminary assessment of the impact of seabirdso n marine resources at South Georgia. Colloq. Ecosystemes Subantarctiques 51: 501-509; BECK, J. R. 1969. Food, moult and age of first breeding in the Cape Pigeon, Daption capensis Linnaeus. Br. Ant. Surv. Bull. 21:33-44 (as cited in OBST, B.S. 1985. Densities of Antarctic seabirds at sea and the presence of the krill Euphausia superba. The Auk. 102:540-549)
78 Croxall & Prince (unpublished) As cited in Croxall JP, Prince PA (1987) Seabirds as predators on marine resources, especially Krill, at South Georgia. In: Croxall JP (ed) Seabirds: feeding ecology and role in marine ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, London, p 347a?“368
79 CROXALL, J.P., STEELE, W.K, MC INNES, S.J. & PRINCE, P.A. 1995. Breeding distribution of the Snow Petrel Pagodroma nivea. Marine Ornithology 23: 6999
80 FALLA, R. A. 1937. Birds. B. A. N. Z. Antarct. Res. Exped., 1929-31, Rep., ser. B, no. 2. (as cited in ARNOULD, J.P.Y. & WHITEHEAD, M.D. 1991. The diet of Antarctic Petrels, Cape Petrels and Southern Fulmars rearing chicks in Prydz Bay. Antarct. Sci. 3: 1927)
81 GRIFFITHS, A.M. 1983. Factors affecting the distribution of the Snow Petrel (Pagodroma nivea) and Antarctic Petrel (Thalassoica antarctica). Ardea 71: 145150
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The Southern Ocean Diet and Energetics Database is hosted by the Australian Antarctic Data Centre.
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