| Indicator Definition ||The monthly means of total column ozone measured at Macquarie Island.|
Bureau of Meteorology, Department of the Environment and Heritage Details
| JIM EASSON
Ozone Monitoring Unit
Atmosphere Watch Section
GPO Box 1289K
Bureau of Meteorology
Ph +61 3 9669 4238
|Theme Area ||
|The following 12 out of 15 criteria
For details of indicators, see the State of Environment Bibliography
entries 16336 and 16337
| 1. || Serve as a robust indicator of environmental change|
| 2. || Reflect a fundamental or highly-valued aspect of the environment or an important environmental issue|
| 3. || Be either national in scope or applicable to regional environmental issues of national significance|
| 4. || Provide an early warning of potential problems|
| 5. || Be capable of being monitored to provide statistically verifiable and reproducible data that shows trends over time and, preferably, apply to a broad range of environmental regions|
| 6. || Be scientifically credible|
| 9. || Be cost-effective|
| 10. || Have relevance to policy and management needs|
| 11. || Contribute to monitoring of progress towards implementing commitments in nationally important environmental policies|
| 12. || Where possible and appropriate, facilitate community involvement|
| 13. || Contribute to the fulfillment of reporting obligations under international agreements|
| 15. || Where possible and appropriate, be consistent and comparable with other countries� and state and territory indicators|
Macquarie Island Details
Geographic Coverage is
Latitude (-54.0 to -54.0)
Longitude (158.0 to 159.0)
| Rationale For Indicator Selection ||Ozone filters ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the Sun and affects the|
dynamics of the stratosphere and overall atmospheric radiation balance. With
reduction in stratospheric ozone levels, UV incidence on the surface has
serious ramifications for Antarctic and Southern Ocean biological systems.
| Design and Strategy For Indicator Monitoring Program ||Spatial Scale: Macquarie Island (lat 54deg 29' 59" S, long 158deg 57' 08" E).|
Frequency: Annual report on monthly means of daily figures.
Measurement Technique: Global-scale daily analyses are produced by the Bureau
of Meteorology on a 2.5 - degree latitude by 2.5 - degree longitude grid,
using satellite data. In situ Dobson spectrophotometer measurements at
Macquarie Island in conjunction with major centres in Australia provide
benchmark and calibration data of total-column ozone.
Macquarie Island is the only station situated under the Antarctic Ozone hole,
providing an important contribution to ozone monitoring activities.
| Research Issues ||The traceable data set may be extended back a few years before 1978 but|
cannot go much further back with any confidence.
When Dobson measurements began seriously in 1955, there was no traceability of
instrument standards. Each instrument was calibrated absolutely rather than by
the hierarchy of standards, beginning in 1978. In the initial measurement
program, ozone measurements were used mainly for day-to-day variations - the
idea of using Dobsons for a long-term trend in ozone was not an objective.
Consequently the need for properly referenced instruments was not a high
priority. The difficult mechanism of applying standards was not in place when
measurements started in 1956.
Temporal range of the available data, as described by the metadata record, is from 30-Sep-96 to 31-Mar-98.
Timespan: 7-July-1957 to 31-December-2011.
Number of data points: 15890.
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Macquarie Island: Total column ozone