Feature Types

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Use link on Feature Type Code to see details of that Feature Type.

Code Feature Type Definition
355 Bay Properly a smooth, comparatively gradual indentation of the coastline, the seaward opening of which is usually wider than the penetration into the land, but often applied more to loosely, cf. bight, firth, fjord, gulf, inlet.
357 Bight Crescent-shaped indentation in the coastline, similar to a bay but either larger or with a gentler curvature.
358 Bluff A headland or short stretch of cliff with a broad nearly vertical face, or a similar feature at the margin of a glacier or an ice piedmont.
359 Butte A flat-topped isolated hill similar to, but smaller than, a mesa.
360 Buttress Similar to bastion but usually forming part of a larger feature. Bastion: Upstanding rock feature, commonly with cliffs on at least one side, and usually an outlier of a larger feature.
361 Canyon A deep, relatively narrow gorge of considerable size, bounded by high steep slopes; the term may be applied also to submarine features.
141 Cap A dome-shaped glacier usually covering a highland near the water-divide.
362 Cape Piece of land facing seaward and projecting beyond the line of the adjacent coast into the sea or into an ice shelf, cf. point, promotory.
363 Castle Descriptive term, a natural feature resembling a castle in shape.
142 Cave An underground hollow with access from the ground surface or from the sea, often found in limestone areas and on rocky coastlines.
143 Cemetery An area of land for burying the dead.
364 Channel A comparatively deep and narrow, navigable waterway between an island and the mainland, or between islands, or navigable route through shoals, cf. strait, although the distinction between the two terms has not always been the mainland application.
365 Cirque A deep rounded hollow on a mountain side formed by glacial action and usually occupied by a remnant glacier or neve.
145 Claim An area claimed by a country as an external territory of that country.
146 Cliff A high, very steep to perpendicular or overhanging face of rock or ice.
147 Cliff boundary The boundary of the cliff.
366 Coast Boundary between land and sea, applied in place-names to lengths of coastline determined partly by the history of their discovery and partly by convenient demarcation points, cf. land.
367 Cone Cone-shaped hill or nunatak.
154 Convention An area subject to an international convention; will generally be the CCAMLR (Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources).
368 Corner Turning point of a rock ridge or a point on a bay.
369 Cove Small coastal indentation, commonly circular or semi-circular in shape and with a restricted entrance, or a small bay.
370 Crag Steep, rugged rock, hill, nunatuk, or mountain.
371 Crater A bowl-shaped hollow at the summit or on the side of a volcano; it usually has steep sides and is of considerable size.
372 Crossing In the context of names, it is a low pass across a peninsula.
373 Deep The deepest part of the sea, usually where a depression in the sea floor has steep sides.
167 Dome A rounded and gently sloping elevation in the surface of an inland ice sheet. Ice domes do not have precisely defined margins and may cover very large areas - more than 100,000km sq, for example.
374 Escarpment Elongated and steep, or cliffed, inland rock feature marking a break in geological structure, cf. scarp.
174 Fall A stream falling over a vertical or steep face of a rock, cliff or mountain.
375 Fjord Long narrow arm of the sea between high cliffs, but the term bay has also been applied to such a feature.
182 Flight Path The line, course, or track along which an aircraft is flying or intended to be flown.
186 Food Depot A place for storing food.
376 Gap Relatively low area that provides easy passage through the hills or mountains.
196 Glacier A mass of snow and ice continuously moving from higher to lower ground or, if afloat, continuously spreading.
377 Gorge A valley which is usually deep and narrow, with steep walls; a ravine with rocky walls.
378 Gulf Sea area partially enclosed by land, and usually of larger extent and relatively greater penetration than a bay.
379 Gully Glacier-worn or water-worn ravine in a hill or a mountain side.
380 Harbour Protected stretch of water where vessels may safely anchor or secure to shore, in a cove or bay or between islands.
381 Head Comparatively high, steepfaced land jutting into the sea or into an ice shelf; similar to promotory but applied to a feature of lesser extent, cf. cape, point. An unnamed head is usually described as a headland.
382 Headland Comparatively high, steepfaced land jutting into the sea or into an ice shelf; similar to promotory but applied to a feature of lesser extent, cf. cape, point. An unnamed head is usually described as a headland.
383 Heights Relatively high hills or mountains.
384 Hill Natural elevation usually below 300m, but the term may be applied to much higher (although relatively low) features in mountainous areas, cf. knoll, mountain.
205 Historic An area or item of historic interest. Areas or items included in the Historic Sites and Monuments list of the Antarctic Treaty are identified.
189 Ice front The vertical cliff forming the seaward face of an ice shelf or other floating glacier, varying in height to 2 to 50 m above sea level.
213 Ice rise A mass of ice resting on rock and surrounded either by an ice shelf, or partly by an ice shelf and partly by sea. No rock is exposed and there may be none above sea level. Ice rises often have a dome-shaped surface. The largest known is about 100 km across.
282 Ice rumple A locally grounded area of ice shelf which is overridden by an ice sheet. ice rumples are distinguished by crevassing together with a rise in the surface. The criterion for distinguishing between ice rumples and an ice rise is the direction of ice movement as shown by the crevasse pattern. ice may be deflected or even halted by ice rumples, but in an ice rise, movement is independent of that of the ice shelf and, being inthe main radial, will in places oppose it. No known ice rumples rise more than 50 m above ice shelf surface level, whereas ice rises may be up to several hundred metres high.
297 Ice sheet A mass of ice and snow of considerable thickness and large area. Ice sheets may be resting on rock or floating. Ice sheets of less than about 50,000 square km resting on rock are called ice caps.
219 Inland Island A small landmass encircled by inland waters.
385 Inlet Small indentation in the coastline usually tapering toward its head, cf. creek, but also applied to an arm of a bay or to a coastal embayment on the landward side of an ice shelf.
223 Island A land mass, especially one smaller than a continent, entirely surrounded by water.
435 Isthmus Neck
386 Knob A prominent isolated mound.
387 Knoll Small rounded hill or relatively low mountain or nunatak.
388 Lagoon Enclosed area of salt or brackish water separated at times from the sea by a more or less effective obstacle such as a beach bar, or shelf, cf. lake.
389 Land Large continental area defined by natural boundaries, or partly by natural boundaries and partly by boundaries of political convenience. The term was formally used by explorers for newly discovered lengths of coastline, cf. coast. Outside the area covered by this work the term may be synonymous with territory. The use of land does not refer to the ground, rather it is a generic part of a toponym.
390 Landing Natural or human-made places for discharging or taking on passengers and cargo.
229 Landing area Any locality either on land, water or structures, including airports/helipads and intermediate landing fields, which is used, or intended to be used, for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Landing areas may or may not have facilities for the shelter and servicing of aircraft, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo.
391 Lookout An elevated place from which a particular scenic attraction may be viewed.
392 Massif Compact group of mountain heights, which may be partly or almost entirely ice-covered.
554 Massif boundary The boundary line of a massif.
393 Mesa Synonymous with plateau or table but of lesser extent.
394 Monolith Pillar-like rock peak or nunatak.
243 Monument An object, especially large and made of stone, built to remember and show respect to a person or group of people, or a special place made for this purpose.
245 Moraine A mound, ridge, or other distinct accumulation of unsorted, unstratified glacial drift, predominantly till, deposited primarily by direct action of glacier ice, in a variety of topographic landforms that are independent of control by the surface on which the drift lies.
395 Mountain Natural elevation rising to a relatively great height. Mountain, hill and knoll are terms indictating various degrees of heights in descending order, varying with the general configuration of the vicinity. The term mountains may be used for a grouping within a range.
396 Neve The crystalline or granular snow on the upper part of a glacier, which has not yet been compressed into ice; a field or bed of frozen snow.
248 Offshore rock Rocks located between the tidal area and the seaward edge of the continental shelf
249 Outcrop A detached rock mass, or group or rocks, distinctively shaped by erosion and weathering.
398 Pass Relatively low area that provides easy passage through the hills or mountains.
399 Passage Navigable channel between two seas or oceans, or between reefs or islands.
400 Peak A hill or mountain with a comparatively sharp summit.
401 Peninsula Piece of land almost surrounded by water or projecting far into the sea, which may be of very large, medium or small extent, cf. island.
402 Piedmont Literally (in French), the foot of a mountain. Used to describe the gentle slope leading down from the steep mountain slpoes to the plains and including both the piedmont and the accumulation of colluvial and alluvial material which forms a low-angle slope beyond the piedmont.
403 Pillar Synonymous with pinnacle for an offshore rock. Pinnacle: A rock rising sheer from the sea bottom, a slender peak or rock on land.
404 Plain Level or gengtly undulating land, mainly ice-free, which may be at low or high elevation, cf. flat, plateau.
405 Plateau More or less extensive ice-covered area of relatively high and uniform elevation, which may include one or more domes and be limited by mountain walls or not so limited, cf. plain, snowfield; the term may be applied also to submarine features.
406 Platform A small plateau or flat rock massif.
407 Point Sharp and often comparatively low piece of land jutting out from the coast or forming a turning point in the coastline, but usually applied to a less prominent or less navigationally significant feature than a cape. The term may also be applied to a rock feature at a little distance from a low ice-covered coast.
261 Polynya Any water in pack ice or fast ice other than a lead, not large enough to be called open water. If a polynya is found in the same region every year, e.g. of the mouths of big rivers, it is called a recurring polynya. A temporary small clearing in pack ice which consists of small floes and brash in continuous local movement is called an unstable polynya; an opening which is flanked by large floes and therefore appears to be relatively stable is called a stable polynya. When frozen over, a polynya becomes an ice shylight from the point of view of the submariner.
408 Portal A gateway, entrance.
409 Promontory Similar to a headland, but of larger extent, that may be above open sea, above an ice piedmont or above an ice shelf.
267 Protected area An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity and/or of natural and associated cultural resources. The area is managed through legal or other effective means.
410 Pyramid Pyramid-shaped peak
411 Range Row of mountains, or groups of mountains broken be glaciers, extending over a considerable distance.
412 Ravine A long narrow depression with steeply sloping sides, smaller than a valley but larger than a gully.
273 Reef A mass or ridge of rocks rising above the surrounding sea or lake bottom to or nearly to the surface, and dangerous to navigation of vessels.
274 Refuge A shelter from extreme or dangerous environmental conditions such as those posed by the weather.
413 Ridge Long narrow hill or mountain top or spur leading to a summit; the term may also be applied to submarine features.
415 Rise A long broad elevation which rises gently from its surroundings; the term may be applied also to submarine features.
416 Rookery Nesting and breeding places of a penguin colony, usually of Emperor penguins.
417 Saddle A depression in a hill or line of hills.
452 Scientific Site A location of scientific study site or where a sample was taken. It also includes the location of scientific markers to relocate sites.
299 Ship wreckage The ruined remains of a stranded or sunken vessel which has been rendered useless.
300 Shoal A sandbank or sandbar that makes the water shallow and presents a navigation hazard.
418 Skerry Small rocky island.
419 Slope A stretch of rising or falling ground; an inclined plane or gradient.
420 Snowfield Large expanse of permanent ice and snow which may extend down to sea-level or may be intermontane, cf. plateau.
421 Sound A strait between two sea areas or an extensive, partly enclosed sea area, including an area that may be covered by ice shelf.
422 Spit Long narrow shoal (where submerged) or a tongue of land (where above water) projecting into the sea.
423 Spur Projection from a mountain or range.
424 Stack High and precipitous detached pillar of rock near shore.
312 Station A place where there is permanent human habitation and infrastructure serving as a base for scientific research.
425 Strait Comparatively narrow stretch of water connecting two sea or two large bodies of water, cf. channel, passage.
426 Subglacial basin Subglacial: a term meaning 'beneath the ice'. Basin: a very large depression occupied by sea water, ie. an ocean basin.
427 Subglacial mountains Subglacial: a term meaning 'benearth the ice'. Mountain: A mass of land considerably higher than its surroundings and of greater altitude than a hill.
428 Subglacial trench Subglacial: a term meaning 'benearth the ice'. Trench: A deep, or elongated trough, in a floor of the ocean.
319 Taxi path A line along the ground or water which an aircraft normally travels under its own power before or after flying.
429 Territory Extent of land under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state.
325 Tongue A projection of the ice edge up to several km in length caused by wind and current.
430 Tooth Tooth-shaped rock or nunatak.
431 Tor An isolated high rock commonly eroded by wind into unusual shapes.
328 Tower A self supporting construction supported by feet. It has latticed uprights and has no guys.
330 Traverse A linear scientific transect or traverse. A once off path follow by scientist to collect data.
331 Treaty An international agreement in writing between two states or a number of states. Treaties are binding in international law; some treaties create law only for those states that are parties to them.
334 Tunnel A underground passageway, especially one for trains or cars that passes under a mountain, river or a congested urban area
432 Undersea ridge A ridge (Long narrow hill or mountain top or spur leading to a summit) that is a submarine feature.
433 Valley Long depression running from a higher level to a lower level (or to the coast), with a glacier completely filling the feature, partly filling it or terminating within it; rarely a valley may be ice-free with a seasonly stream running through it. The term may be applied also to submarine features.
434 Wallow Low-lying muddy or damp place where animals gather.
345 Water body An enclosed body of water, usually but not necessarily fresh water, from which the sea is excluded.
346 Watercourse A natural stream arising in a given drainage basin but not wholly dependent for its flow on surface drainage in its immediate area, flowing in a channel with a well-defined bed between visible banks or through a definite depression in the land, having a definite and permanent or periodic supply of water, and usually, but not necessarily, having a perceptible current in a particular direction and discharging at a fixed point into another body of water.